[This institute] will make decisions to reduce and avoid pest problems consistent
with the principals of IPM.
To minimize negative impacts to human health and natural services without compromising
effective management of nuisance organisms by establishing integrated pest
management practices in and on the public lands of Whatcom County. To conserve
community and natural values and preserve drinking water quality by providing
community-wide examples of safe and effective pest management practices.
All public land employees, public pest control operators and contractors engaged
in management of nuisance organisms in or upon public lands and structures.
This policy elaborates a decision-making system designed to maximize long-term
pest management and minimize harmful, unexpected or unintended consequences
of managing nuisance organisms. It supplies direction to public pest control
operators and contractors charged with the complex task of fulfilling the objectives
of multiple rules and policies. The objectives include, but are not limited
to, cost effective management of pest populations, protection of human health
and safety, minimization of pesticide use, compliance with local, State and
Federal regulations, and the conservation of common property natural services.
The policy provides guidance to prevent the achievement of one or more objectives
from obstructing the fulfillment of others. It encourages careful decision-making
by use of Integrated Pest Management practices. The policy suggests that Integrated
Pest Management programs to be assessed, monitored, evaluated and reported
at scheduled intervals. The policy requires the provision of opportunities
for staff training, education, and certification as well as for the provision
of information and education to members of the public.
Integrated pest management (IPM) means a sequential
decision-making process for the selection and use of pest suppression
tactics. It is a long-term management strategy based on sound
ecological and economic principles. Integrated Pest Management
practices suppress nuisance organisms while minimizing negative
impacts on society, human health, non-target species and the
environment. An Integrated Pest Management program undergoes
continuous improvement using knowledge accumulated from regular
scientific evaluation of its tactics. Preferred Integrated Pest
Management techniques include the following measures:
management means the conservation of natural enemies of pest
organisms to maintain pest populations at tolerable levels. Biological
agents are organisms that effectively prey on, parasitize or
compete with pests. Biological management measures are selected
to minimize negative impacts on beneficial communities and to
enhance the suppressive interaction of biological control agents
management means the use of prevention, avoidance and cultural
and mechanical tactics that alter habitats and landscapes to
provide unfavorable conditions for pest organisms.
management refers to the use of products that change a pest’s
chemistry, behavior patterns or developmental processes in ways
harmful to its physiology and reproductive potential. Pest specific
chemicals that do not damage the health of people, of non-target
species, or of other pest suppression measures are essential
in Integrated Pest Management programs.
level is the level of development
of a pest population at which action must be taken to prevent
the population from reaching the injury level. Action levels
are pest- and site-specific.
any type of ground, water, or aerial equipment, device,
or contrivance using motorized, mechanical, or pressurized
power and used to apply any pesticide on land and anything
that may be growing, habitating, or stored on or in such
land, but shall not include any pressurized hand sized
household device used to apply any pesticide, or any equipment,
device, or contrivance of which the person who is applying
the pesticide is the source of power or energy in making
such pesticide application, or any other small equipment,
device, or contrivance that is transported in a piece of
equipment licensed under this chapter as an apparatus [RCW
Best Management Practice means a
human activity that achieves its intended outcome at the least
possible environmental cost.
Certified applicator means
any individual who is licensed as a commercial pesticide applicator,
commercial pesticide operator, public operator, private-commercial
applicator, demonstration and research applicator, or certified
private applicator, or any other individual who is certified
by the director to use or supervise the use of any pesticide
which is classified by the EPA or the director as a restricted
use pesticide [RCW 17.21.020 (5)].
Commercial pesticide applicator means
any person who engages in the business of applying pesticides
to the land of another [RCW 17.21.020 (6)].
Commercial pesticide operator means
any employee of a commercial pesticide applicator who uses
or supervises the use of any pesticide and who is required
to be licensed under provisions of this chapter [RCW 17.21.020
Injury level refers to the point
at which the growth of a pest problem will cause unacceptable
damage to public health and safety, natural services, or recreational
and aesthetic values or cause economic injury to desirable
plants or to the integrity, function, or service life of public
Pests are any organisms, including
weeds, invertebrates, vertebrates, or plant diseases, which
threaten human health or compromise the economic, aesthetic,
or environmental values of society.
Pesticides are substances registered
by the U.S. government and Washington State Department of Agriculture
as pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals that kill or reduce
the reproductive potential of pest populations.
Operator is a public employee authorized to use restricted
pesticides and pesticides delivered through an apparatus. It shall
be unlawful for any employee of a State agency, municipal corporation,
public utility, or any other government agency to use or to supervise
the use of any restricted use pesticide, or any pesticide by means
of an apparatus, without having obtained a public operator license
from the director [RCW 17.21.020].
Restricted pesticides means any pesticide
or device which, when used as directed or in accordance with
a widespread and commonly recognized practice, the director determines,
subsequent to a hearing, requires additional restrictions for
that use to prevent unreasonable adverse effects on the environment
including people, lands, beneficial insects, animals, crops,
and wildlife, other than pests.
2.0 IPM Program Coordination
In departments conducting pest management activities, [this institute] shall
designate an IPM coordinator. The duties of the IPM coordinator are:
an IPM program and assist operating personnel with implementation
of the program.
fully in the planning and design of landscape, engineering,
construction, and maintenance criteria applied to facility
the maximum extent possible, harmonize [this institute’s]
Integrated Pest Management programs with other pest management
operations with similar programs in neighboring jurisdictions
research needed to implement and improve the IPM programs
a Working List of key pests, including a specimen collection
a working compilation of Best Management Practices and
other resources for Integrated Pest Management.
the compliance of employee and commercial pesticide applicators
and operators with applicable laws, regulations, and policies.
with the development and implementation of a continuing
education program to promote public awareness and understanding
of Integrated Pest Management.
possible, assist other jurisdictions with creation of IPM
a review body for consideration of additions to and deletions
from the working lists of approved pesticides.
an annual workshop for IPM practitioners to evaluate and
improve IPM programs and practices. The Workshop agenda
for practitioners to share and compare field experiences
to and deletions from the Working List of key pests
and update Best Management Practices/IPM guidelines
the list of approved pesticides
for licensed operators to receive accredited supplementary
on safety issues
to the designated review body, a detailed report
of workshop findings and recommendations, annually
3.0 Landscape Planning and Design
To the maximum extent possible, Integrated Pest Management strategies will
be incorporated into the development, repair, and maintenance of [this institute’s]
public facilities. Planning for buildings, landscapes, road rights-of-way,
or other facilities will include pest management concerns at the design phase.
Design factors such as site selection, types of uses, soils, grade, slope,
water table, drainage, and proximity to sensitive areas, have significant pest
management dimensions. Pest populations, in turn, have important implications
for the costs of maintenance and repair. Plant selections will be determined
by pest susceptibility and maintenance requirements. Preference will be given
to native plants that satisfy those requirements. Construction of pest barriers
and avoidance of pest harboring habitats and materials will be accounted for
in the planning of facilities.
Prior to conducting pest management activities, both employee and contract
practitioners should solicit confirmation of pest identifications. The scope
of identification includes nuisance organisms as well as the presence or absence
of biological control agents or other beneficial organisms. Sample specimens
should be obtained whenever possible to be used as reference material in educating
employees. Whatcom County Cooperative Extension office can assist in the identifications
of unexpected, unusual, or exotic identifications.
5.0 Threshold Determinations, Monitoring and Record-keeping
The IPM coordinator must establish “action” and/or “injury” thresholds
for each site, structure, key plants and/or key pest species. Using appropriate
sampling strategies, pest management personnel will conduct field assessments
at intervals specified in IPM programs. Record monitoring observations and
management activities on standard sampling sheets. Sampling sheet data elements
and description of specimens
and damage assessment notes
of suppression activities undertaken
coordinators shall maintain the following records:
jurisdiction’s written IPM program;
or pest-specific management plans;
signed sampling sheets for all activities conducted at maintained
of pesticide application records. Such records must include but
are not limited to, name of licensed applicator, exact time and
date of application, physical address of application site, chemical
name, brand name, amount, concentration, rate, and total area
of application, equipment used, and weather conditions including
temperature, precipitation, and wind speed and direction.
6.0 Management Practices
[This Institute] will develop guidelines and procedures for Integrated Pest
Management and will maintain lists of recommended Best Management Practices
for the suppression of nuisance organisms. Selection of management tactics
should emphasize prevention and practitioners should conduct management activities
using tactics from the lists. Suggested management practices include the following
measures uses information from threshold determinations and monitoring
and record-keeping data to decide to ‘do nothing.’ This
is the most common and effective strategy in any IPM program.
management measures change the landscape to avoid or suppress
the potential for pest problems.
control measures may be conservative or augmentative. Conservative
biological control maximizes the suppressive potential of native
and endemic enemies of pests. Augmentative biological control
measures introduce natural enemies to suppress pest populations.
management measures use chemical substances to change the behavior,
physiology or development of pests, resulting in mortality, morbidity
and reduction in reproductive potential. All pesticide use must
be conducted in accordance with Section 7.0 below.
7.0 Pesticide Usage
It is [This Institute’s] policy to safeguard properly functioning environmental
conditions for its people and for the flora and fauna. [This Institute] will
use chemical pesticides only as a component of programs conducted in accordance
with this Integrated Pest Management Policy. Pest management practitioners
will use pesticides in accordance with the Washington Pesticide Application
Act (RCW 17.21). Practitioners will store, transport, apply and dispose of
pesticides in accordance with the provisions of the pesticide label information.
The label is the law.
Institute] May Give Preference To Commercial Pesticide Operators
In contracts for pest management services involving the application of chemical
pesticides, [This Institute] may give preference to vendors specifying the
use of commercial pesticide applicators to conduct such applications, over
those specifying the use of commercial pesticide operators to do so.
Institute] Requires Certification and Continuing Education of
[This Institute] requires employees buying, handling, transporting, or applying
restricted use pesticides or pesticides delivered by means of an apparatus
to be public operators (RCW 17.21.220). Public operators must be, at all times,
in compliance with the supplementary education and re-certification requirements
of RCW 17.21.128. [This Institute] will reimburse current employees who are
public operators for WSDA licensing fees and re-certification training costs
incurred during the term of their employment.
Institute] Requires Protective Clothing and Equipment
[This Institute’s] employees engaged in the use of pesticides shall follow
all clothing and equipment requirements listed on the pesticide label and the
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the appropriate pesticide. [This Institute]
will provide protective clothing and equipment, safety guidelines, and training
to employees engaged in the use of pesticides. [This Institute] will likewise
provide appropriate sanitation facilities and means within the employees work
Institute] Notifies Public of Pesticide Use
[This Institute] will notify members of the public about pesticide application
sites by using caution signs and other visible postings at all primary points
of entry (RCW 17.21.410). Prior to any pesticide applications [This Institute]
will meet special notice requirements for designated applications, such as
those adjacent to community centers or schools, and [This Institute] will notify,
individually, listed pesticide-sensitive individuals within the designated
notification area (RCW 17.21.420).
Institute] Participates in Planning for Pest Emergencies
To maximize [This Institute’s] discretion during pest emergencies, [This
Institute] will participate, to the maximum extent practicable, in the development
by State and Federal agencies, of emergency pest management strategies. Certain
especially dangerous or damaging species of pests and types of pest infestations
are regulated directly by State and/or Federal agencies. In emergency situations
involving such pests or infestations, the management options available may
be severely limited. Such occasions frequently involve pesticide use may not
conform to the guidelines established for the day-to-day operations outlined
in locally created and approved Integrated Pest Management Programs. These
circumstances might include:
of conditions that poses a serious threat to public health and
appearance of an exotic or uncommon pest having the potential
to spread rapidly and cause serious ecological or economic damage;
escalation of a routinely applied management strategy (i.e.,
an operation that is significantly larger in scale than the day-to-day
routine - e.g., from spot treatment to broadcast treatment);
need to apply a pesticide in a sensitive area;
situation in which the only effective treatment for a pest emergency
involves the application of a chemical that has not been reviewed
and approved for use;
need to bring extensive pest populations under the designated
threshold during the transition from a restoration site condition
to a condition manageable through normal Integrated Pest Management
in part by:
Murray and C. MacConnell
IPM Project, WSU Whatcom County
Dexter, S. Nordeen C. Folgelson and J. Luce
City of Bellingham
Western Washington University
Whatcom County P & R
Whatcom County Noxious Weeds
Port of Bellingham
for preventing bites
for horse owners
for Public Lands