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European Crane Fly   
LITERATURE CITED

Antonelli, A.L. and G. Stahnke.1998. European Crane Fly: A Lawn and Pasture Pest. . WSU-CES: EB 0856. 4 pp.

Barnes, H.F. 1941. Sampling for Leatherjackets with Orthodichlorobenzene Emulsion. Ann. Appl. Biol. 28:23-28.

Blackshaw, R.P. and J.W. Newbold. 1987. Studies on the estimation of Sampling Error for Leatherjackets (Tipula spp.) in Grassland. Grass and Forage Science 42:347-351.

Campbell, R.L. 1975 Insecticidal Control of European Carne Fly in Washington. J. Econ. Ent. Vol. 68, No. 3. pp 386-388.
Fox, D.J.S. 1957. Note of Occurrence in Cape Breton Island of Tipula paludosa Meigen (Diptera: Tipulidae). Can. Entomol. 89:228.

Jackson, D.M. and R.L. Campbell. 1975. Biology of the European Crane Fly, Tipula paludosa Meigen, in Western Washington (Tipulidae: Diptera). W.S.U. Tech. Bull. 81. 23 pp.

LaGasa, E.H. and A.L. Antonelli. 1999 Western Washington Tipula oleraceae Survey (Diptera: Tipulidae) 2000. WSDA PUB 034 (N/1/00). 8 pp.

Pesho, G.R., S.E. Brauen, and R.L. Goss. 1981. European Crane Fly: Larval Infestations in Grass Cultivars. Journ. Econ. Ent. pp 230-233.

Stahnke, G.K., S.E. Brauen, A.L. Antonelli, and R.L. Goss. 1993. Alternatives for European Cranefly Control in Turfgrass. International Turfgrass Soc. Res. Journ. 7. R.N. Carrow, N.E. Christians, R.C. Shearman (Eds.). Intertec Publ. Corp. Overland Park, Kansas. pp 375-381.

Stahnke, G.K. and A.L. Antonelli. 1995. European Crane Flies in the Pacific Northwest. Golf Course Management. December. pp 56-60.

Wilkinson, A.T.S. 1969. Leatherjackets - A New Pest in British Columbia. Canada Agriculture.

Williams, J., R.C. Eickelbarger, and G.C. Fisher. 1989. The European Crane Fly: A Serious Pasture Pest in Tillamook County. OSU-EM 8411. 4 p

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Arthur L. Antonelli, Ph.D.
WSU Puyallup
24 years at present location
Major interest: Landscape IPM
Avocation: Ichthyology (specifically fish behavior)

Gwen K. Stahnke, Ph.D.
WSU Puyallup
11 years at present location
Major interest: Turfgrass Management

 
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In this paper:

Introduction

Life Cycle

Current Management Practices

Management Techniques - Past & Current

Bibliography



See also:

"They don't drive Harleys" - by Craig MacConnell

"ECF & CCF" - by Sharon Collman

"Managing ECF in Whatcom Co." - by Todd Murray and Scarlet Tang

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