WSU Whatcom County Extension

Integrated Pest Management for Blueberries

Pesticide Selection

 

Berry growers have expressed a need for easily accessible information which will assist them in selecting specific pesticides based on worker safety and environmental impact.

The following tables are a compilation of this information extracted from several different sources. The active ingredients registered for use in blueberries at the time of this publication are included in the tables. The list was obtained from Pesticide Guide for Northwest Berries, updated by Joe DeFraancesco of Oregon State University. This list is not intended as a recommendation of endorsement of the listed pesticides. Use patterns and availability of specific pesticides is subject to change. For this reason, do not assume that materials listed in these tables are registered for use.

These tables are intended for use as a quick reference to assist growers in pesticide selection, not as substitutes for the label or other sources of more detailed information.


Worker Safety

Acute toxicity values (oral and dermal LD50s) were sourced from "The Pesticide Book" by George Ware, “Pesticide Information Profiles” by EXTOXNET, and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) supplied by the manufacturer. These are measurements of pesticide toxicity to rats under experimental conditions; testing which is required by the EPA as a component of the registration process. The LD50 is the dose (expressed as milligrams of toxicant per kilogram of body weight) that kills 50 percent of the animal test population through either oral or dermal exposure. The lower the number, the greater the toxicity.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groups pesticides into categories of toxicity (I through IV) based on LD50 values. This information is presented under the column heading "EPA Toxicity Rating." Category I pesticides are the most toxic and category IV pesticides are the least toxic. These categories are based on specific ranges of acute LD50 values.


Environmental Impact

The Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) for each listed pesticide was obtained from a bulletin published by the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program at Cornel University titled: A Method to Measure the Environmental Impact of Pesticides

An integrated pest management (IPM) program uses a combination of methods (sampling, thresholds, forecasts, biological and cultural controls, etc.) to manage pests without solely relying on chemical pesticides to produce a safe, economic crop. When pesticides are required, the EIQ value can be used to make more environmentally sound pesticide choices.

The formula developed to determine the EIQ value of individual pesticides uses the average of the farm worker, consumer, and ecological components. The farm worker component is based on applicator/harvester exposure and chronic toxicity. The consumer component is based on consumer exposure and groundwater contamination potential.  The ecological component of the model is based on the effects of the chemical on fish, birds, bees, beneficial arthropods, and aquatic systems.

To accurately compare pesticides and pest management strategies, the EIQ value should be used along with the dose, percent active ingredient, and the frequency of application. To account for different formulation of the same active ingredient and different use patterns, a simple equation called the EIQ Field Use Rating was developed. This rating is calculated by multiplying the EIQ value for the specific chemical obtained in the tables by the percent active ingredient in the formulation by the rate per acre used (usually in pints or pounds of formulated product).

EIQ Field Use Rating = EIQ x % active ingredient x Rate

The values obtained from these calculations can be used to compare different pesticides and pest management programs to determine which program or pesticide has the lowest environmental impact.

 

IPM Sheets

1. Fungicides Chart (pdf)
    
updated April 19, 2012

2. Herbicides Charts (pdf)
    
(2 pages)
    updated April 19, 2012

3. Insecticides Charts (pdf)
    
(2 pages)
    updated April 19, 2012

4. Other Pesticides (pdf)
    
updated April 19, 2012

 

Resources
Cornel University, New York State IPM: A Method to Measure the Environmental Impact of Pesticides
http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/publications/eiq/

Berries Northwest: Pesticide Guide for Northwest Berries
http://www.berriesnw.com/Guide.asp

The Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET)
http://extoxnet.orst.edu/

 

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WSU Whatcom County Extension • 1000 N. Forest St., Bellingham, WA 98225 • (360) 778-5800 • whatcom@wsu.edu