2013-2014 WEED MANAGEMENT RESULTS FOR RED RASPBERRIES

Tim Miller and Carl Libbey

WSU Mount Vernon

Red Raspberries

 

Accomplishments: The new herbicide trial was conducted at the Mukhtar Singh Farm near Lynden, WA.  Three other raspberry trials were conducted during 2014:  an IR-4 efficacy and crop safety trial for saflufenacil, a Zeus (sulfentrazone) timing trial, and cane burning/fruit quality trial at WSU NWREC.  Data for the new herbicide trial are reported here and will be available at the red raspberry portion of the Northwestern Washington Small Fruit Conference in Lynden in December, 2014.

 

Materials and Methods: The trial was conducted on established ‘Meeker’ red raspberry near Lynden, WA.  Products were applied at two timings:  at time of primocane burning (PRIMO, 6-inch primocanes) and to 3-ft tall primocanes (POST).  Herbicides were applied March 27 (PRIMO) and May 20 (POST), 2014 using a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer.  Herbicides and rates are provided in Tables 1 through 4.  Primocane injury and weed control were evaluated April 10 and 28, May 7, and June 9.  Berries were sampled by hand on July 7.  The design was a randomized complete block with three replicates.

 

Results: There was no visible floricane injury resulting from any treatment (data not shown).  Gramoxone and Treevix PRIMO applications gave satisfactory primocane control by the April 11 evaluation (Table 1).  By early June, there was no significant growth reduction by herbicide treatment.  Broadleaf weed control was uniform for all treatments in this trial, ranging from 73 to 100% control at all evaluation timings (Table 2).  Plots scheduled to receive quinclorac POST were generally more weedy than plots receiving a PRIMO treatment; following quinclorac application, broadleaf weed control was similar across all treatments.  Primary broadleaf weeds in the plots were common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), fringed willow-herb (Epilobium ciliatum), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), and wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus).  Quackgrass (Elymus repens) was present to some degree in most plots, ranging from 13 to 83% cover among all plots prior to herbicide application (Table 3).  Most subsequent control ratings did not significantly differ, although it appears that Gramoxone was more effective in burning back emerged quackgrass than Treevix.  Berry yield and fruit size was similar for all treatments (Table 4).  The single sampling averaged about 600 g fruit per m of row.  Fruit size ranged from 2.4 to 3.0 g/berry.

 

These results indicate that new herbicides tested in this trial were safe for established red raspberry.  Alion combinations with Gramoxone gave effective broadleaf weed control, as well as initial burn of quackgrass.  Treevix combinations were effective for primocane management and subsequent broadleaf weed control, and quinclorac, alone and in combination with other herbicides, should continue to be a high priority for ultimate registration in red raspberry.

 

ARTICLES:

Table 1

Table 1. Primocane growth reduction following application of several herbicides in red raspberry (2014).

 

Treatmenta

 

Rate

 

Timing

Primocane growth reductionb

4/10

4/28

5/7

6/9

 

product/a

 

%

%

%

%

Alion + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 pt

PRIMO

    83 ab

  68 a-d

    30 abc

2

Alion + Gramoxone

10 fl.oz + 2 pt

PRIMO

    93 ab

   58 bcd

  10 bc

2

Treevix

1 oz

PRIMO

    93 ab

  73 a-d

    53 abc

2

Treevix

2 oz

PRIMO

100 a

   82 abc

  65 ab

2

Alion + Treevix

5 fl.oz + 1 oz

PRIMO

100 a

   83 abc

    57 abc

0

Alion + Sinbar + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 1.5 lb + 2 pt

PRIMO

    87 ab

   82 abc

    57 abc

2

Alion + simazine + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 qt +  2 pt

PRIMO

      63 a-d

   73 a-d

    35 abc

2

Alion + diruon + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 lb +  2 pt

PRIMO

      72 abc

   60 a-d

    28 abc

2

Treevix + Sinbar

1 oz + 1.5 lb

PRIMO

100 a

   62 a-d

    30 abc

2

Treevix + simazine

1 oz + 2 qt

PRIMO

  95 a

  50 cd

    23 abc

2

Treevix + diuron

1 oz + 2 lb

PRIMO

100 a

   68 a-d

    42 abc

2

Quinclorac

12 fl.oz

POST

       40 a-d

95 a

73 a

0

Quinclorac

1.5 pt

POST

    0 d

  90 ab

    55 abc

2

(Alion + Gramoxone) fb Quinclorac

(5 fl.oz + 2 pt) fb 12 fl.oz

(PRIMO + PRIMO) fb POST

     60 a-d

   62 a-d

    28 abc

2

Treevix fb Quinclorac

1 oz fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

    43 a-d

 38 d

    8 bc

2

Sinbar fb Quinclorac

1.5 lb fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

    25 bcd

     83 abc

    48 abc

2

Simazine fb Quinclorac

2 qt fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

  0 d

   88 ab

    58 abc

2

Diuron fb Quinclorac

2 lb fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

  13 cd

     83 abc

  67 ab

0

 

Means within a column and followed by the same letter, or not followed by a letter, are not significantly different (P < 0.05).

aHerbicides applied March 27 (6-inch primocanes) and May 20 (POST, 3-ft primocanes), 2014; “fb” =

  “followed by”.

bPerecent primocane burn is the level of primocane suppression visible in the plot compared to nontreated primocanes; quinclorac was not applied until May 20, 2014.

 

Table 1

Table 2. Weed control following application of several herbicides in red raspberry (2014).

 

Treatmenta

 

Rate

 

Timing

Weed controlb

4/10

4/28

5/7

6/9

8/7

 

product/a

 

%

%

%

%

%

Alion + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 pt

PRIMO

100 a

100 a

100 a

  95 a

  93 a

Alion + Gramoxone

10 fl.oz + 2 pt

PRIMO

100 a

100 a

100 a

100 a

100 a

Treevix

1 oz

PRIMO

  97 a

    90 ab

    87 ab

  88 a

  82 a

Treevix

2 oz

PRIMO

  98 a

  98 a

100 a

100 a

  98 a

Alion + Treevix

5 fl.oz + 1 oz

PRIMO

  98 a

100 a

100 a

100 a

  98 a

Alion + Sinbar + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 1.5 lb + 2 pt

PRIMO

100 a

100 a

100 a

  98 a

  97 a

Alion + simazine + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 qt +  2 pt

PRIMO

100 a

100 a

100 a

  97 a

  97 a

Alion + diruon + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 lb +  2 pt

PRIMO

100 a

100 a

100 a

100 a

100 a

Treevix + Sinbar

1 oz + 1.5 lb

PRIMO

  98 a

100 a

100 a

  98 a

100 a

Treevix + simazine

1 oz + 2 qt

PRIMO

  93 a

    85 ab

    80 ab

  82 a

  88 a

Treevix + diuron

1 oz + 2 lb

PRIMO

  98 a

    93 ab

    92 ab

  92 a

  83 a

Quinclorac

12 fl.oz

POST

   83 a

    92 ab

    88 ab

  80 a

  78 a

Quinclorac

1.5 pt

POST

 75 a

    83 ab

    82 ab

  85 a

  85 a

(Alion + Gramoxone) fb Quinclorac

(5 fl.oz + 2 pt) fb 12 fl.oz

(PRIMO + PRIMO) fb POST

 98 a

  98 a

100 a

  98 a

  98 a

Treevix fb Quinclorac

1 oz fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

 85 a

  77 b

  73 b

  85 a

  85 a

Sinbar fb Quinclorac

1.5 lb fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

 95 a

  98 a

    98 ab

  97 a

  97 a

Simazine fb Quinclorac

2 qt fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

 78 a

  98 a

    98 ab

  95 a

  95 a

Diuron fb Quinclorac

2 lb fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

 83 a

  98 a

    97 ab

  93 a

  88 a

Nontreated

---

---

   0 b

    0 c

    0 c

    0 b

    0 b

 

Means within a column and followed by the same letter, or not followed by a letter, are not significantly different (P < 0.05).

aHerbicides applied March 27 (6-inch primocanes) and May 20 (POST, 3-ft primocanes), 2014; “fb” =

  “followed by”.

bQuinclorac was not applied until May 20, 2014.

Table 1

Table 3. Quackgrass cover following application of several herbicides in red raspberry (2014).

 

Treatmenta

 

Rate

 

Timing

Quackgrass coverb

Preburn

4/10

4/28

5/7

6/9

8/7

 

product/a

 

%

%

%

%

%

%

Alion + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 pt

PRIMO

52

7

15

18

12

8

Alion + Gramoxone

10 fl.oz + 2 pt

PRIMO

33

5

8

13

7

5

Treevix

1 oz

PRIMO

53

47

60

73

52

33

Treevix

2 oz

PRIMO

60

57

60

65

53

35

Alion + Treevix

5 fl.oz + 1 oz

PRIMO

83

80

82

90

62

28

Alion + Sinbar + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 1.5 lb + 2 pt

PRIMO

83

20

23

38

12

43

Alion + simazine + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 qt +  2 pt

PRIMO

47

7

8

8

10

7

Alion + diruon + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 lb +  2 pt

PRIMO

65

13

17

37

25

13

Treevix + Sinbar

1 oz + 1.5 lb

PRIMO

35

33

33

32

5

3

Treevix + simazine

1 oz + 2 qt

PRIMO

13

13

13

25

13

20

Treevix + diuron

1 oz + 2 lb

PRIMO

42

42

45

48

32

25

Quinclorac

12 fl.oz

POST

65

65

58

65

47

32

Quinclorac

1.5 pt

POST

35

35

28

35

18

17

(Alion + Gramoxone) fb Quinclorac

(5 fl.oz + 2 pt) fb 12 fl.oz

(PRIMO + PRIMO) fb POST

28

2

3

10

5

5

Treevix fb Quinclorac

1 oz fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

35

35

35

35

25

12

Sinbar fb Quinclorac

1.5 lb fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

33

32

25

23

7

2

Simazine fb Quinclorac

2 qt fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

28

28

28

35

23

13

Diuron fb Quinclorac

2 lb fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

27

27

27

35

18

15

Nontreated

---

---

68

68

73

77

65

38

 

Means within a column and followed by the same letter, or not followed by a letter, are not significantly different (P < 0.05).

aHerbicides applied March 27 (6-inch primocanes) and May 20 (POST, 3-ft primocanes), 2014; “fb” =

  “followed by”.

bPercent quackgrass cover given for prior to herbicide application “preburn” and following herbicide treatment; quinclorac was not applied until May 20, 2014.

Table 1

Table 4. Red raspberry yield and fruit size following application of several herbicides (2014).

Treatmenta

Rate

Timing

Fruit yieldb

Berry sizeb

 

product/a

 

g/m

g/berry

Alion + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 pt

PRIMO

670

2.6

Alion + Gramoxone

10 fl.oz + 2 pt

PRIMO

658

2.7

Treevix

1 oz

PRIMO

698

2.5

Treevix

2 oz

PRIMO

717

2.7

Alion + Treevix

5 fl.oz + 1 oz

PRIMO

719

2.4

Alion + Sinbar + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 1.5 lb + 2 pt

PRIMO

733

2.6

Alion + simazine + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 qt +  2 pt

PRIMO

521

3.0

Alion + diruon + Gramoxone

5 fl.oz + 2 lb +  2 pt

PRIMO

601

2.7

Treevix + Sinbar

1 oz + 1.5 lb

PRIMO

829

2.7

Treevix + simazine

1 oz + 2 qt

PRIMO

754

2.5

Treevix + diuron

1 oz + 2 lb

PRIMO

869

2.6

Quinclorac

12 fl.oz

POST

563

2.9

Quinclorac

1.5 pt

POST

797

2.9

(Alion + Gramoxone) fb Quinclorac

(5 fl.oz + 2 pt) fb 12 fl.oz

(PRIMO + PRIMO) fb POST

611

2.9

Treevix fb Quinclorac

1 oz fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

811

2.7

Sinbar fb Quinclorac

1.5 lb fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

738

2.6

Simazine fb Quinclorac

2 qt fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

678

2.5

Diuron fb Quinclorac

2 lb fb 12 fl.oz

PRIMO fb POST

713

2.7

Nontreated

---

---

805

2.4

 

 

Means within a column and followed by the same letter, or not followed by a letter, are not significantly different (P < 0.05).

aHerbicides applied March 27 (6-inch primocanes) and May 20 (POST, 3-ft primocanes), 2014;

  “fb” = “followed by”.

bFruit yield from 1 m of row, picked July 7, 2014; berry size calculated from the weight of 50

  berries.